Islam is called Religion of Abraham, but the Quran establishes Muslims as a Separate Ummah.
Islam flourished in a place where it had to confront Judaism and Christianity. So, it needed to create a clear viewpoint about them. As we have seen, the second chapter deliberately talked about Jews, and the third chapter deliberately talked about Christians.
In this Chapter the Quran is forming the Islamic Society. In this Chapter the Quran gives very basic rules of life, like rules of marriage and divorce, rules of inheritance etc. It also threatens Hypocrites, those are otherwise misguided part of Muslim Society.
Most importantly this chapter gives a clear Idea about Messiah (Christ) that forms the foundation of Sufi-ideology.
Parts and Sections
Part-1: Social Rules
Section-1 (Verse 1): Women are Primarily Mothers.
Section-2 (Verse 2-4): Marriage.
Section-3 (Verse 5-6): Marrying a widow with orphan.
Section-4 (Verse 7-8): Feed relatives, poor, and orphans when a person dies.
Section-5 (Verse 9-14): Disposal of Deceased Person’s Property.
Section-6 (Verse 15-21): Guilt of Lewdness.
Section-7 (Verse 22-28): Lawful to Marry.
Section-8 (Verse 29-32): Socio-Economic Safety—Scope of Socialism/ Communism closed.
Section-9 (Verse 33): Portion of Brotherhood.
Section-10 (Verse 34-35): Right of a Husband and the Process of Divorce.
Section-11 (Verse 36-42): Serve Allah – Spend for Needy.
Section-12 (Verse 43): Drunken State, Janaba, and Taymmum.
Part-2: Leadership and Security
Section-13 (Verse 44-50): Obey what you hear from Prophet (pbuh).
Section-14 (Verse 51-58): Judge with Justice.
Section-15 (Verse 59-70): Muslim Leadership.
Section-16 (Verse 71-76): Fight
Section-17 (Verse 77-85): Fight Fearlessly—Short is the Enjoyment of this World.
Section-18 (Verse 86): Answering of Greeting.
Section-19 (Verse 87-93): Slay them wherever you find them.
Section-20 (Verse 94-96): Fighters—A Grade Higher.
Section-21 (Verse 97-100): Emigration in the Cause of Allah.
Section-22 (Verse 101-104): Prayer in March.
Section-23 (Verse 105-126): Do not argue for Betrayers.
Section-24 (Verse 127-135): Justice to Women and Orphans
Section-25 (Verse 136-147): The Signs of Hypocrisy – taking unbelievers as aulia (protector/helper/friend that guides)
Section-26 (Verse 148-149): Conceal Evil
Section-27 [Verse 150-152]: No Midway
Part-3: Concluding Lessons
Section-28 (Verse 150-162): Jews – the followers of old Messages.
Section-29 (Verse 163-170): Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah.
Section-30 (Verse 171-175): Messiah Jesus—the Sign.
Part-4: Clearing Doubts
Section-31 (Verse 176): Kalalah
Part-1: Social Rules
Section-1 [Verse 1]: Women are Primarily Mothers
O mankind! Reverence your Guardian-Lord, Who created you from a single person; created, of like nature, his mate; and from them both scattered countless men and women – Fear Allah, through whom you demand, and the wombs: for Allah ever watches over you.
Allah created mankind from a single person—Eve was created from Adam. So, as human, man and woman are same.
Their nature is similar but they are made suitable as mates. And humans are born in their wombs; so fear Allah and His instrument to create countless man and woman.
Section-2 [Verse 2-4]: Marriage
To orphans restore their property, nor substitute worthless things for good ones; and devour not their substance with your own. For this is indeed a great sin.
If you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans, marry women of your choice, two or three or four; but if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly, then only one, or that your right hands possess, that will be more suitable, to prevent you from doing injustice.
And give the women their dower as a free gift; but if they, of their own good pleasure, remit any part of it to you, take it and enjoy it with right good cheer.
Allah at first has talked about the marriage of those women who have lost their husbands (widows), but if one marries a widow who has children from her previous dead husband one must be very careful, not to devour the property of orphan children (that is left by the dead father). If one thinks one will not be able to deal justly with the orphan children one should not marry such woman.
Then one may marry as of one’s choice, two or three or four but again, if one feels that one will not be able to deal justly then only one or a slave woman.
Dowry must be provided.
It is a matter of feeling—as in the Verse (…if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly, then only one…).
If one feels that one is able to deal justly with the wives, one should marry, or keep trying to marry more than one woman. And most of the young men feel that they can deal justly; it is normally in the old age, a man becomes wise enough to realize that one cannot be equal to every wife.
Nobody knows humans more than Allah. A family that has more than one woman is happier. It is prestigious for the man as well. But the people who have lost their independent thinking in the rubbish thoughts of some artists, writers, poets, and women activists are poor in understanding the reality.
However, policy of marrying more than one woman is related to Muslim Society. In a Muslim Society men and women have some restrictions in respect of movement, mixing, and amusement that make marrying more than one woman justified and desirable (for the women as well).
Section-3 [Verse 5-6]: Marrying a widow with orphan.
To those weak of understanding make not over your property, which Allah has made a means of support for you, but feed and clothe them therewith, and speak to them words of kindness and justice.
Make trial of orphans until they reach the age of marriage; if then you find sound judgment in them, release their property to them; but consume it not wastefully, nor in haste against their growing up. If the guardian is well-off, Let him claim no remuneration, but if he is poor, let him have for himself what is just and reasonable. When you release their property to them, take witnesses in their presence: But all–sufficient is Allah in taking account.
This is a policy for the person who married a widow and she has children from her previous dead husband.
Orphan children weak in understanding should be provided with the food and cloth from the property of dead father. When they attain the age of marriage, if they show the ability of sound judgment their properties have to be released.
If the man is well-off let him claim no remuneration but if he is poor, let him have for himself what is just and reasonable.
And he has to keep witnesses when he releases their property.
Section-4 [Verse 7-8]: Feed relatives, poor, orphans when a person dies.
From what is left by parents and those nearest related there is a share for men and a share for women, whether the property be small or large – a determinate share. But if at the time of division other relatives, or orphans, or poor, are present, feed them out of the (property), and speak to them words of kindness and justice.
It is a practice that when a person dies, relatives, orphans, and poor, those are present, are fed out of the property of the deceased. The instruction in this Verse is to feed them when the property is divided; then it is known to everybody who gets what.
It is not a must that it has to be done on the 40th day (that is practiced by Indian Muslims) but sooner is the better otherwise one’s property may be eaten up by another knowingly or unknowingly.
It is also to be noticed that relatives, orphans, and poor, those are present, have to be fed from dead person’s property. But, if he left no property it is not needed.
Section-5 [Verse 9-14]: Disposal of Deceased Person’s Property
Let those (disposing of an estate) have the same fear in their minds as they would have for their own if they had left a helpless family behind: Let them fear Allah, and speak words appropriate.
It is an advice to those who would judge the distribution of property of the dead person. The Verse otherwise mentions the need to appoint Judges.
Those who unjustly eat up the property of orphans, eat up a Fire into their own bodies: They will soon be enduring a Blazing Fire!
It is a warning to the persons receiving shares, not to establish undue right on the property of the dead person.
Allah directs you as regards your children’s: to the male, a portion equal to that of two females; if only females, two or more, their share is two-thirds of the inheritance; if only one, her share is a half. For parents, a sixth share of the inheritance to each, if the deceased left son; if no son, and the parents are the heirs, the mother has a third; if the deceased left brothers the mother has a sixth after the payment of legacies and debts.
You know not whether your parents or your children are nearest to you in benefit. These are settled portions ordained by Allah; and Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
In what your wives leave, your share is a half, if they leave no son; but if they leave a son, you get a fourth; after payment of legacies and debts.
In what you leave, their share is a fourth, if you leave no son; but if you leave a son, they get an eighth; after payment of legacies and debts.
If the man or woman whose inheritance is in question, was left in Kalalah, but has left a brother or a sister, each one of the two gets a sixth; but if more than two, they share in a third; after payment of legacies and debts; so that no loss is caused (to anyone). Thus is it ordained by Allah; and Allah is All–Knowing, Most Forbearing.
Following eleven points from above verses narrates the shares. For ease of narration I have divided the verses in 11 parts.
Prophet (pbuh) said that if anything is left out it goes to the closest relative.
1. “to the male, a portion equal to that of two females;”—
Son and daughter get at the rate of 2:1. This division of 2:1 is after giving the portions of deceased person’s father (1/6), mother (1/6) and wives (1/8) as in serial 4 and 10 below.
2. “if only females, two or more, their share is two-thirds of the inheritance;”—
If there is no son, daughters get 2/3. Wife(s) gets 1/4 as in serial 9 below. Rest 1/12 is divided among Father and Mother of deceased person at the rate of 2:1 or 5:1 as in serial 5 and 6.
- The buried family has no son; therefore very little (1/12) is taken out from the family
- Parents gets 1/6 each, only when the deceased person leaves son(s) as in serial 4 below.
3. “if only one, her share is a half.”—
This point is related to serial 2. Daughter gets 1/2. Wife(s) gets 1/4 as in serial 9 below. Rest 1/4 is divided among Father and Mother of deceased person at the rate of 2:1 or 5:1 as in serial 5/6.
4. “For parents, a sixth share of the inheritance to each, if the deceased left son;”
As described in serial 1 above.
5. “if no son, and the parents are the heirs, the mother has a third;”
In this case, the dead has no son. In this case, mother of the deceased person gets 1/3 of his father (in the ratio 2:1).
6. “if the deceased left brothers the mother has a sixth…”
It is a point related to point 5 above (deceased person left no son). If the deceased has brothers, his Father’s portion is increased and mother’s decreased. In this case, mother of the deceased person gets 1/6 of his father (in the ratio 5:1).
It does not mean that brothers have to get the property immediately. When father will die then they will get the property according to the share specified.
For serial 5 and 6 above there may be several situations:
- If deceased person left daughters and wife(s) as in serial 2, parents of deceased person divide 1/12 in these ratios (2:1 or 5:1).
- If deceased person left only one daughter and wife(s) as in serial 3 parents of deceased person divide 1/4 in these ratios (2:1 or 5:1).
- If deceased person left only wife(s) and as the wife(s) gets 1/4 as in serial 9 below, parents of the deceased person divide 3/4 in these ratios (2:1 or 5:1).
- If deceased person left no son, no daughter, no wife(s) and parents are the heirs, they (parents) divide 1/1 in these ratios (2:1 or 5:1).
7. “In what your wives leave, your share is a half, if they leave no son;”—
In this case husband gets 1/2. Rest of the property goes to her daughter(s). If she does not have daughter(s) as well, it goes to her parents; and if her parents are dead, it goes her brothers and sisters as in Verse – 176 of this Chapter.
8. “but if they leave a son, you get a fourth;”—
In this case husband gets 1/4. Rest of the property goes to her sons and daughters at the rate of 2:1.
9. “In what you leave, their share is a fourth, if you leave no son;”
As described above in serial 2, 3, and 5/6.
10. “but if you leave a son, they get an eighth;”
As described in serial 1 above.
Above 10 points covers all likely cases of a married man died, such as, firstly: if a man died leaving son(s) and daughter(s); secondly: if he died leaving daughters and wives only; thirdly: if he died leaving one daughter and wives only; fourthly: if he died leaving no son and daughter.
In above 10 points brothers and sisters of the deceased person are not given any property. Father and mother of the deceased person get the property. Once mother dies her property goes to her children that are brothers and sisters of deceased person, and once father dies his property goes to his children that include deceased person’s step brothers and sisters as well.
The last point (11) discussed below talks about the situation when parents of the deceased person is already dead. Should the brothers and sisters still get the property?
11. “If the man or woman whose inheritance is in question was left in “Kalalah”, but has left a brother or a sister, each one of the two gets a sixth; but if more than two, they share in a third;”—
Kalalah is a person whose parents are dead (See explanation of Kalalah below). So, this point (11) talks about the situation when parents of the deceased person are already dead. In preceding 10 points, only when the deceased person left no child parents get a big share. In all other cases parents get 1/3 (1/6+1/6) or less. Once parents are already dead this 1/3 is given to their children (brothers and sisters of deceased person).
Deceased person’s step brothers and sisters gets share in father’s portion (1/6) only.
Explanation of Kalalah:
“Kalalah” is a derivative of “Iklil” means the crown that surrounds the head. Then, Kalalah should mean a man in crown. Therefore, it may mean: he is the head of the family, which otherwise means, his parents are dead. When parents are dead, their share (1/3) goes to the brothers and sisters of the deceased person.
In case, the person is a freed slave, he is also a Kalalah, even if his parents are alive; because, parents sold off their rights when they sold him as slave. So, for a freed slave also this word is applicable. When a freed slave dies, 1/3 of his property goes directly to his brothers and sisters even if his parents are alive, and parents do not get anything.
A woman is Kalalah when her parents and husband are dead.
In the last Verse of this surah inheritance of “Kalalah” has been said again because people were asking questions. There are otherwise scopes to ask question; as for example:
What happens if Kalalah left no child, should his brothers and sisters still get 1/3 (and wife get a major share?)?
If a woman is Kalalah and she has no child, who takes her inheritance?
To answer these questions the inheritance of Kalalah is again talked out in the last Verse of the Surah.
It may be mentioned here that traditional meaning of Kalalah is a person who has neither ascendant nor descendant. But in my view, in this Verse Kalalah do not have parents only (and husband in case of woman). In the last Verse (Verse 156) Kalalah has neither ascendant nor descendant, because in the last Verse it is mentioned specifically:
“…Allah directs about Al-Kalalah. If it is a man that dies, leaving a sister but no son … – AlQuran 4:156”
If Kalalah meant a person without any descendant, “no son” would not be mentioned.
It is worth mentioning that Prophet (pbuh) did not explain the meaning of Kalalah (even if he explained, the Hadith is not available at present).
Those are limits set by Allah: those who obey Allah and His Messenger will be admitted to Jannaat with rivers flowing beneath, to abide therein and that will be the supreme achievement. But those who disobey Allah and His Messenger and transgress His limits will be admitted to a Fire, to abide therein: And they shall have a humiliating punishment.
Section-6 [Verse 15-21]: Guilt of Lewdness
If any of your women are guilty of lewdness, Take the evidence of four witnesses from among you against them; and if they testify, confine them to houses until death do claim them, or Allah ordain for them some way.
If two men among you are guilty of lewdness, punish them both. If they repent and amend, leave them alone; for Allah is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful. Allah accepts the repentance of those who do evil in ignorance and repent soon afterwards; to them will Allah turn in mercy: For Allah is full of knowledge and wisdom.
Of no effect is the repentance of those who continue to do evil, until death faces one of them, and he says, “Now have I repented indeed;” nor of those who die rejecting Faith: for them have We prepared a punishment most grievous.
O you who believe, you are forbidden to inherit women against their will. Nor should you treat them with harshness, that you may take away part of the dower you have given them – except where they have been guilty of open lewdness; on the contrary live with them on a footing of kindness and equity. If you take a dislike to them it may be that you dislike a thing, and Allah brings about through it, a great deal of good.
But if you decide to take one wife in place of another, even if you had given the latter a whole treasure for dower, take not the least bit of it back: Would you take it by slander and manifest wrong? And how could you take it when you have gone in unto each other, and they have taken from you a solemn covenant?
Section-7 [Verse 22-28]: Lawful to Marry
And marry not women whom your fathers married – except what is past. It was shameful and odious – an abominable custom indeed.
Prohibited to you are: your mothers, daughters, sisters; father’s sisters, mother’s sisters; brother’s daughters, sister’s daughters; foster-mothers (who gave you suck), foster-sisters; your wives’ mothers; your step-daughters under your guardianship, born of your wives to whom you have gone in – no prohibition if you have not gone in; wives of your sons proceeding from your loins; and two sisters in wedlock at one and the same time, except for what is past; for Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
Also women already married, except those whom your right hands possess. Thus has Allah ordained against you. Except for these, all others are lawful, provided you seek with gifts (Mahr) from your property – desiring chastity, not lust, seeing that you derive benefit from them, give them their dowers as prescribed; but if, after a dower is prescribed, agree mutually (to vary it), there is no blame on you, and Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
If any of you have not the means wherewith to wed free believing women, they may wed believing girls from among those whom your right hands possess, and Allah has full knowledge about your faith; you are one from another. Wed them with the leave of their owners, and give them their dowers, according to what is reasonable; they should be chaste, not committing illegal sex, nor taking boy-friends. And after they are taken in wedlock, if they commit illegal sexual intercourse, their punishment is half that for free women. This is for those among you who fear sin; but it is better for you that you practise self-restraint. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
Allah does wish to make clear to you, and show you the ways of those before you, and turn to you, and Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
Allah does wish to turn to you, but the wish of those who follow their lusts is that you should turn away – far, far away. Allah wishes to lighten for you; and man was created weak.
Section-8 [Verse 29-32]: Socio-Economic Safety—Scope of socialism/ communism closed.
O you who believe, eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly, but let there be among you traffic and trade by mutual consent. Nor kill yourselves, for verily Allah has been to you Most Merciful! If any do that in aggression and injustice, soon shall We cast them into the Fire, and easy it is for Allah. If you avoid the most heinous of the things which you are forbidden to do, We shall expel out of you all the evil in you, and admit you to a gate of great honor.
And wish not for the things in which Allah has made some of you to excel others. To men is allotted what they earn, and to women what they earn; but ask Allah of His bounty. For Allah has full knowledge of all things.
By the words “O you who believe, eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly, but let there be among you traffic and trade by mutual consent” it cancels the possibility of establishing a communist or socialist society. Even for a Muslim it is forbidden to wish for the things in which Allah has made some of them to excel others (“And wish not for the things in which Allah has made some of you to excel others”) Therefore, in a Muslim society there cannot be any kind of class struggle.
Section-9 [Verse 33]: Portion of Brotherhood
To everyone, We have appointed shares and heirs to property left by parents and relatives. To those, also, with whom you have made a pledge (brotherhood), give their due portion. For truly Allah is witness to all things.
Section-10 [Verse 34-35]: Right of Husband and the Process of Divorce.
Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has given the one more than the other, and because they support them from their means. Therefore, the righteous women are devoutly obedient, and guard in absence, what Allah orders them guard. As to those women on whose part you fear disloyalty and ill-conduct, admonish them, refuse to share their beds, beat them; but if they return to obedience, seek not against them means. Surely, Allah is Most High, Great.
If you fear a breach between them twain, appoint arbiters, one from his family, and the other from hers; if they wish for peace, Allah will cause their reconciliation. Indeed Allah has full knowledge, and is acquainted with all things.
If a wife is disloyal and disobedient man is given some rights (admonish—separate bed—beat) to control his woman because, he (man) protect and maintain her—supports her from his means.
Therefore, to exercise these rights “protecting and maintaining the woman” is a precondition. If a person marries a woman who is economically independent, as well as, does not need a protection from her husband, then the right of husband is reduced.
But for cultural, social, or educational make-up if an woman view marriage relation differently, and does not consider it (marriage) as a means of her protection and sustenance the right of man does not reduce, because in reality the woman is enjoying the protection and provision of the man.
It is not only the means to control, it as well falls in the process of divorce. If a husband fears disloyalty and ill-conduct, then he will firstly admonish her; if she is not corrected, as a second try he will refuse her to share bed; if she is still not corrected, as a last try, he will beat her. Even if the woman is not corrected, the matter is carried forward to arbiters, as specified in above Verses, who may breach the marriage or take a try to set peace.
If arbiters give verdict of divorce, and the man gives divorce by uttering to his wife in front of genuine witnesses “divorce” (Talak) once, or as many times as he may have shouted out, it is considered as “One Divorce”. It is the Basic Process of Divorce.
In case the woman does not want divorce (but she is not correcting herself) or her guardians thinks divorce would not be good for her, then to divorce her, man has to follow complete process: Admonish — Separate Bed — Beat — Appointing Arbiter — Formal uttering of “Talak”.
But, in case both husband and wife both agrees to divorce, or wife wants divorce returning mahr, initial three steps (Admonish — Separate Bed — Beat) may be skipped off.
Section-11 [Verse 36-42]: Serve Allah – Spend for Needy.
Serve Allah, and join not any partners with Him; and do good– to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, those in need, neighbors who are near of kin, neighbors who are strangers, the companion by your side, the wayfarer, and what your right hands possess. Verily, Allah loves not the arrogant, the vainglorious: Those who are miserly or enjoin miserliness on others, or hide the bounties which Allah has bestowed on them; for We have prepared for those who resist Faith, a punishment that steeps them in contempt. And those who spend of their substance, to be seen of men, but have no faith in Allah and the Last Day, and whoever takes Satan as an intimate; then what a dreadful intimate he has!
And what burden were it on them if they had faith in Allah and in the Last Day, and they spent out of what Allah has given them for sustenance? For Allah has full knowledge of them. Allah is never unjust in the least degree, if there is any good, He doubles it, and gives from Him a great reward.
How then if We brought from each people a witness, and We brought you as a witness against these people! On that day, those who reject Faith and disobey the Messenger will wish that they were buried in the earth: But they will never be able to hide a single fact from Allah!
Section-12 [Verse 43]: Drunken State, Janaba, and Taymmum.
O you who believe! Approach not prayers (As-Salat) when you are in a drunken state until you know of what you utter, nor when you are in a state of Janaba (in a state of sexual impurity caused by the secretion of semen and have not yet taken a bath as per procedure stated in Sariah), except when travelling on the road, till you wash your whole body. And if you are ill, or on a journey or one of you come after answering the call of nature, or you have been in contact with woman (sexual contact) and you find no water, perform “Taymmum” with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands (Taymmum). For Allah does blot out sins and forgive again and again.
What it means by the words: “and you find no water”? One may opine that it is not available within 3 km, and another may say it is not available within 20 km. It is due to our seriousness we often tend to go in to tougher side. I feel, when water is not available in the regular water point of the person, he has not found it. As for example, if a person has a attached bathroom and he finds no water in it, as the roof-top water tank is empty at that point of time, then “he has not found water” and can do “Taymmum”. If a person usually fills-up his water container once in a day, and later in the day he find no water in it, then “he has not found water” and can do “Taymmum”.
Part-2: Leadership and Security
Section-13 [Verse 44-50]: Obey what you hear from Prophet (pbuh).
Have you not turned your vision to those who were given a portion of the Book, they traffic in error, and wish that you should lose the right path. But Allah has full knowledge of your enemies; Allah is enough for a Protector, and Allah is enough for a Helper.
Of the Jews there are those who displace words from their places, and say, “We hear and we disobey”; and “Hear, may you not hear”; and “Ra’ina”; with a twist of their tongues and a slander to Faith. If only they had said, “What hear and we obey”; and “Do hear”; and “Do look at us”; it would have been better for them, and more proper; but Allah has cursed them for their Unbelief; and but few of them will believe. O you People of the Book, believe in what We have revealed, confirming what was with you, before We change the face and fame of some beyond all recognition, and turn them hind-wards, or curse them as We cursed the Sabbath-breakers, for the decision of Allah must be carried out.
Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him; but He forgives anything else, to whom He pleases; to set up partners with Allah is to devise a sin most heinous indeed.
Have you not turned your vision to those who claim sanctity for themselves? Nay, but Allah does sanctify whom He pleases. But never will they fail to receive justice in the least little thing. Behold! How they invent a lie against Allah, but that by itself is a manifest sin!
Section-14 [Verse 51-58]: Judge with Justice
Have you not turned your vision to those who were given a portion of the Book? They believe in sorcery and evil, and say to the unbelievers that they are better guided in the way than the believers! They are whom Allah has cursed; and those whom Allah has cursed, you will find, have no one to help.
Have they a share in dominion or power? Behold, they give not a farthing to their fellow-men? Or do they envy mankind for what Allah has given them of his bounty, but We had already given the people of Abraham the Book and Wisdom, and conferred upon them a great kingdom. Some of them believed, and some of them averted their faces from him; and enough is Hell for a burning fire.
Those who reject our Signs, We shall soon cast into the Fire; as often as their skins are roasted through, We shall change them for fresh skins, that they may taste the penalty. Truly, Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise.
But those who believe and do deeds of righteousness, We shall soon admit to Jannaat, with rivers flowing beneath – their eternal home. Therein shall they have companions pure and holy. We shall admit them to shades, cool and ever deepening.
Allah does command you to render back your trusts to those to whom they are due; and when you judge between man and man that you judge with justice. Verily how excellent is the teaching which He gives you! For Allah is He Who hears and sees all things.
Allah conferred upon the Jews a great kingdom. Some of them believed, and some of them averted their faces from him. Now Muslims are about to be given a greater kingdom so Allah commands them: “Render back your trusts to those to whom they are due. And when you judge between man and man, you judge with justice”.
Underlined portion of the above Verses can be considered as a sign of the Quran being divine book. In those days people did not know that our skin has pain receptors through which we feel pain (skin has different types of receptors like pain receptors, heat sensors, pressure sensors etc.). If skin is burnt to third degree one will not feel pain. So, the Verse says – in the hell, as the skin will be roasted, it will be changed with fresh skin, that one may test the pain.
Section-15 [Verse 59-70]: Muslim Leadership.
O you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority among you. If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if you do believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is best, and most suitable for final determination.
Have you not turned your vision to those who declare that they believe in the revelations that have come to you and to those before you, and they wish to go for judgment to the Taghut, though they were ordered to reject him. But Satan’s wish is to lead them astray far away.
When it is said to them: “Come to what Allah has revealed, and to the Messenger”. You see the hypocrites avert their faces from you in disgust. How then, when they are seized by misfortune, because of the deeds which their hands have sent forth? Then their come to you, swearing by Allah, “We meant no more than good-will and conciliation!” Those men – Allah knows what is in their hearts; so keep clear of them, but admonish them, and speak to them a word to reach their very souls.
We sent not a Messenger, but to be obeyed, in accordance with the will of Allah. If they had only, when they were unjust to themselves, come unto you and asked Allah’s forgiveness, and the Messenger had asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah indeed Oft–returning, Most Merciful.
But no, by the Lord, they can have no Faith until they make you judge in all disputes between them, and find in their souls no resistance against your decisions, but accept them with the full conviction.
If We had ordered them to sacrifice their lives or to leave their homes, very few of them would have done it; but if they had done what they were told, it would have been best for them, and would have gone farthest to strengthen their (faith); and We should then have given them from our presence a great reward. And We should have shown them the Straight Way. All who obey Allah and the Messenger are in the company of those on whom is the Grace of Allah – of the prophets, the sincere, the witnesses, and the righteous. Ah! What a beautiful fellowship! Such is the bounty from Allah, and sufficient is it that Allah knows all.
It is the guide-line of Islamic Leadership: “Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority among you.” By the words “those charged with authority among you” it means the people who are charged or accepted by Prophet (pbuh) as leaders of men. When Prophet (pbuh) is represented by Caliph or Shia Iman then leaders has to be selected or accepted by them.
At present Shia Imam is selecting several leaders from who people are electing one. If Caliph or Shia Imam devises a way to find out the best of leadership it is OK.
However, while selecting a leader for a distant land Caliph or Shia Imam (if that distant land is a Shia majority land) should think, what Prophet (pbuh) would do in that situation. If there was a king, or a ruling family, of a traditional leadership already ruling the land, and if the king or leader accepted Islam or already a Muslim, and if the king or leader agreed to pay zakat and jijya collected by him, he (Prophet, pbuh) would probably keep the king or traditional leader in power.
It may be mentioned here that zakat and jijya goes to Caliph who then distribute zakat according to the guideline given in the Quran. Zakat is distributed through the mosques—it is the economic power of the mosque (Salat and Zakat are mosque based—“akimus Salat watuz-Zakat” is repeated together, more than 80 times in the Quran; both should be based in mosques. Moreover, no Sahabi used to pay zakat individually; they used to pay it to the mosques and then used to be distributed centrally).
Caliph himself, or Kings or Leaders appointed by Caliph do the judgment; or judgment is done by judges appointed by them.
Muslim or Non-Muslim leaders out of above system are Taghuts. To settle a dispute Muslims should not go to a Taghut.
In the above Verses, general Muslims have been instructed to keep clear of the people who are away from Islamic system and trying to establish peace in the society in their own way. They are hypocrites, admonish them, and speak to them a word to reach their very souls.
Section- 8 of this Surah discards the possibility to establish socialism or communism in Muslim countries. This section discards the possibility to establish democracy. Controlled democracy may be accommodated, if Caliph or Shia Imam has devised the system. Communism, Socialism and Open Democracy are bad. I do not have to explain why Communism and Socialism are bad, those are clearly proven bad. Democracy spread vices; its main aim is to develop economy and create welfare societies with so called freedom of humanity. But Islam mainly aims to develop human character and spirituality and create societies centered by mosques that restricts vices in the societies. In an Islamic Society people leave in real peace and safety (safety from open vices), and can reach easily to Jannaat in the after life.
Section-16 [Verse 71-76]: Fight
O you who believe! Take your precautions, and either go forth in parties or go forth all together. There are certainly among you men who would tarry behind. If a misfortune befalls you, they say, “Allah did favour us in that we were not present among them.” But if good fortune comes to you from Allah, they would be sure to say – as if there had never been ties of affection between you and them – “Oh! I wish I had been with them; a fine thing should I then have made of it!”
Let those fight in the cause of Allah who sell the life of this world for the hereafter. To him who fights in the cause of Allah – whether he is slain or gets victory – soon shall We give him a reward of great (value). And why should you not fight in the cause of Allah, and for those who being weak are ill-treated – Men, women, and children, whose cry is: “Our Lord! Rescue us from this town, whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from you one who will protect; and raise for us from you one who will help!”
Those who believe fight in the cause of Allah, and those who reject Faith Fight in the cause of Taghut. So fight you against the friends of Satan; ever feeble indeed is the plot of Satan.
In this section Muslims are called to fight. When they are to fight is mentioned in the second paragraph—when people of a town are oppressors, and oppressed men, women and children want Lord Almighty to rescue them: “Our Lord! Rescue us from this town, whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from you one who will protect; and raise for us from you one who will help!”
In the Islamic history we find many wars. During the life time of Prophet (pbuh) whole Arabian Peninsula (Jaziratul Arabia) was captured. And during the time of four Caliphs Islamic Empire extended to a great extend.
Islam is a religion for the people of whole world. But, after fourteen hundred years have passed, it seems that it has a home, and an exclusive area.
We can consider Arabian Peninsula as the home of Islam where nobody other than a Muslim can settle permanently (Jews were driven out of Arabian Peninsula—land at southern side of line joining the tip of Red Sea and the tip of Persian Gulf is Arabian Peninsula).
Exclusive Area of Islam extends up to the distance camels can go. Prophet ordered his close companions who would be Caliph after him, not to go (not to carry out military expedition) where camels do not go.
This is the reason for which Hazrat Omar stopped further expansion of Islamic Empire. We as well see, when Amir Muabiah (Governor of Damascus) wrote a letter to Hazrat Omar asking permission to build a Navy, Hazrat Omar became extremely angry, He (Hazrat Omar) shouted out, “By the name of Allah, Muhammad (pbuh) was a true Prophet, I will never allow building a Navy”. Building a Navy would mean going to the area where camels cannot go.
It looks like a Bedouin order—Not to go, where camels do not go. But today after 1400 years have passed, we understand how wise it was! Look at the world map, Islamic World is extended in the region where camels can go. Only Indonesia and countries around it are exceptions (military expedition was not needed for those areas. Dawah by Arab traders was sufficient for them).
Camels live in deserts and steppes where life is tough and traditionally people were organized under strong Tribal Leadership. A person in a tribe could not accept Islam unless Tribal Leader accepted it. And Tribal Leader would not accept Islam unless King had accepted it. So “Camel Areas” had to be captured. People were freed and accepted Islam rapidly. Today those countries are Islamic Countries.
Later Muslims became more powerful, they ruled Spain and East European countries for hundreds of years but only a few people of those countries accepted Islam. Spain was ruled for more than five hundred years but today there is only a few Muslims in Spain and most of them are Arab origin; Turkey ruled East Europe for hundreds of years but today Muslims we find in those areas are mainly Turkish origin. Hardly a few people of those lands converted—camels cannot go to Spain or East European Countries.
Part of India is a Camel going country so a part of Indians are Muslims.
Outside of the camel area people are free as they are not organized under Strong Tribal Systems. There Dawah is the way to preach Islam.
When Sahabies and their immediate Followers captured “Camel Areas” (almost whole of the camel area of the world, extending from the border of China to the Coast of Morocco was captured by them) people looked at them as saviors, because they were oppressed by foreign rulers and forces. But later when Muslims captured Spain or East Europe, people saw them as foreign invaders.
Therefore, people’s need and viewpoint is a major consideration of Jihad as it is mentioned in the above Verse: “And why should you not fight in the cause of Allah and for those who, being weak, are ill-treated – Men, women, and children, whose cry is: “Our Lord! Rescue us from this town, whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from you one who will protect; and raise for us from you one who will help!”
Remarks on Jihad:
Anybody and everybody cannot call for an Offensive Jihad. For Offensive Jihad permission of Caliph is necessary (Shia population needs permission from Shia Imam. In “Shia majority countries” Shia Imam is as good as Caliph).
However, one can fight to protect life, honor, or property of a Muslim—it is a Defensive Jihad. If a Muslim country is suddenly attacked and Muslims fight to defend, it is also a defensive Jihad. For defensive Jihad permission of Caliph is not required.
Trying to go in Government Power in any Muslim country through political process is also an Offensive Jihad. Only the leaders or political parties that have recommendation of Caliph or Shia Imam can claim themselves Islamic Leaders or Parties. In a democratic country Caliph can recommend one or multiple number of leaders or parties.
Caliph can criticize the action of a King (if the country is ruled by King) and put crown prince or any other in power. Caliph can maintain his Army stationed in any country. No Muslim country can adopt a foreign policy contrary to the Policy of Caliph.
Therefore, do not go for an offensive Jihad out of the way. It may amount to “Creating Disorder in a Society” which is bigger crime than murder.
This is all about system. In reality there is no Caliph at present. During the First World War Caliph was defeated and disseminated.
What I think about it:
In my view re-establishment of a caliphate would need a revolution at prophetic level. Probably, this is the time about which Prophet (pbuh) said:
“Soon there will be disasters when sitting person will remain better than standing person, standing person will remain better than moving person, and moving person will remain better than fast moving person. Saad (R) said, what you think about it, if an oppressor enters in to my house and attempt to kill me? He said: be like the son of Adam (Habil)” –Tirmizi [Sons of Adam described in Chapter-5, Section-7]
Prophet said, during that time one should remain attached with the biggest Jamaat.
Therefore, one may remain attached with the biggest Muslim Jamat of his area and/or obey Shia Imam.
Chilaphat will be re-established by Imam Mahdi who may come soon. Following I have discussed related prophecies in Holy Bible (Zechariah) in light of Islam. Here it is obvious that dissemination of caliphate, return of Jews in Palestine, and the descend of Jesus Christ are closely related events. Imam Mahdi will appear about seven years before the descend of Jesus Christ.
Events Leading to the Return of Jesus Christ:
Jews are coming back to Jerusalem. Jews are coming back because time of Jesus retuning back to the Earth is near. Jesus will get the Jews as he left them. Even his companions of Jesus Christ will come out of the graves and walk in the streets of Jerusalem.
“Flocks my reasoning, see how they gather at my call! Thriving now as they throve long since, yet scattered through the world, in those distant lands they shall remember me; with spirit revived, they and their children shall return. Back from Egypt, back from Assyria I will summon them, rally them, to Galaad and Lebanon bring them home; and that home shall be too small for them. Crossed, yonder straits, the sea’s wave checked, depth of the river disappointed of their prey! As Syria’s pride brought low, empire of Egypt cut down! In the Lord they shall find strength, under the protection come and go; so runs the divine promise.” –Zacharius, Chapter 10: (8–12), The Holy Bible (Knox).
All above have recently happened. Jews have come back; found their home too small for them; and defeated Syria and Egypt (in 1967 and 1973 wars).
Almighty God created reasons and situation for every Jew to come back to Israel/Palestine. As we see, after thousand years of exile, in mid nineteenth century, Dr Theodore Hadgel started Zionist movement for a separate homeland; but Caliph (Ataman Emperor) did not accept their prayer. In the First World War Caliph (Ataman Emperor) was defeated. British and her allies captured Middle East and a separate Jewish state started taking shape in Palestine.
After the First World War many Jews came to Palestine out of their nationalistic feelings, but many were delaying. Otherwise, who would come to a barren desert land; so, for them, there was a Hitler. However, Hitler could not survive, but Jews throughout the world understood how much they needed a homeland.
All the prophecies are coming into reality step by step.
“Fling thy gates wide, Lebanon, for the fire to come in, and devour thy cedars! Lament neighbor pine-tree, for cedar overthrown; here be lordly ones plundered; lament, oaks of Basan, for the secret forest that is cut down! Hark, how the shepherd-folk lament, their fine mantle gone, how roars lion for the thickets of Jordan stripped!” – Zacharius, Chapter 11: (1–3), The Holy Bible (Knox).
In the history of Jerusalem many invasions might have come through Lebanon. But above Verses talk about the invasion that is marked by the disappearance of cedars (a kind of costly scented tree). Cedars have disappeared from the nature of Lebanon (A few clumps of Cedars are still protected by merciless punishment to the thieves, and even by laying down anti-personnel mines are not countable—from the nature it is overthrown). In above Verses invasion of “lordly ones” and overthrow of “cedar” are simultaneous events. Cedars are disappearing since the First World War. Therefore, above Verses talk about First World War invasion of British and French (Lordly Ones) Army in to the Middle East.
Since the beginning of the Second World War, the world is passing a hard time.
“This message the Lord my God sent to me: To this flock that is a-flattening for slaughter thou must play the shepherd. What would they slay without remorse, yonder lords of the flock, sell carcass, and thank the Lord that so enriches them; are their shepherds so unmerciful? Ney, I will be unmerciful too, the Lord says, to all that dwell on the earth; I will leave every son of Adam at the mercy of his neighbor, or the king that rule over him; broken and bowed the land shall be, and no redress shall they have from me henceforth!” –Zacharius, Chapter 11: (4–6), The Holy Bible (Knox).
In the above Verses “thou must play the shepherd” is told to the Lordly Ones (British Rulers) who had come to Lebanon; for whom, the gate of Lebanon was opened (Fling thy gates wide, Lebanon, for the fire to come in, … here be lordly ones plundered); and “yonder lords of the flock, sell carcass” are the leaders of the Axis Force in the Second World War, who thought war will make them rich (they fought to capture colonies), for that killed millions (yonder lords of the flock, sell carcass, and thank the Lord that so enriches them). During Second World War every son of Adam was at the mercy of his neighbor (in third world countries), or the king that rule over him (in developed countries). In these Verses Jews are called “flock that is a-flattening for slaughter” not because of the holocaust of the Second World War, but for the impending Third World War when two-third of them will die; in that war Jesus will return; and, once the left over Jews accept Jesus, consequences of Attempted Crucifixion will end.
Lordly Ones successfully played the shepherd—they settled Jews in Jerusalem.
Now Jews are constructing walls around Jerusalem—they are destined to make it. Jerusalem had walls in old time also, but it was a defensive measure against invading armies, not to obstruct the movement of local people.
Keep away from Jerusalem; go back to Tel Aviv. But they will not go. Long after idolatry has gone from Arabia forever, they are building the walls around Jerusalem, about four men high, as if they are in a hurry to invite the disaster.
“Burden of the Lord’s doom, where falls it now? On Israel…This is my decree, that Jerusalem’s walls … (See literary translation—that is as follows:) Behold. I will make Jerusalem a cup of darkness to all people round about; Ay, and against Juda, too, it shall be, in the siege against Jerusalem.” –Chapter 12: (1–2), Zacharius, The Holy Bible (Knox).
In the subsequent Verses (of chapter 12 and 13) the words “When that day comes” or “A time shall come” is repeated several times, meaning that these are the scenario that will come into reality after a major event. What is that major event? Probably it is the event described in the last part of the same chapter 13.
“Smite shepherd, and this flock shall scatter; so upon the common folk my vengeance shall fall. All over the land, the Lord says, two thirds of them are forfeit to destruction, only a third shall be left to dwell there; and this third part, through fire I will lead them; purged they shall be as silver is purged, tried as gold is tried. Theirs on my name to call, their plea mine to grant; My own people, so I greet them, and they answer, The Lord is my own God.” –Chapter 13: (8–9), Zacharius, The Holy Bible (Knox).
The wall has been constructed. Soon there will be a great war. Many Jews, Palestine and others will die. Through deaths and mornings Jerusalem will reborn as a secure place of Pilgrimage. Imam Mahdi will appear toward the beginning of this war about seven years before the descend of Jesus Christ.
However, for hundreds of years people are thinking Imam Mahdi would come soon. My above explanation about the time of Jesus returning earth may be wrong. Therefore, do not cease your activities; do what the Quran and Hadith wants you to do.
Section-17 [Verse 77-85]: Fight Fearlessly—Short is the Enjoyment of this World.
Have you not turned your vision to those who were told to hold back their hands (from fight) but establish regular prayers and spend in regular charity? When the order for fighting was issued to them, behold, a section of them feared men as – or even more than they should have feared Allah: They said, “Our Lord! Why have You ordered us to fight? Would You not grant us respite to our term, near?” Say, “Short is the enjoyment of this world, the hereafter is the best for those who do right. Never will you be dealt with unjustly in the very least!
Wherever you are, death will find you out, even if you are in towers built up strong and high!” If some good befalls them, they say, “This is from Allah”; but if evil, they say, “This is from you (O Muhammad)”. Say: “All things are from Allah,” so what is wrong with these people that they fail to understand any word? Whatever good, happens to you, is from Allah; but whatever evil happens to you, is from your soul (Naffs). And We have sent you as a Messenger to mankind. And enough is Allah for a witness. He who obeys the Messenger, obeys Allah, but if any turns away, then We have not sent you to watch over them.
They have “Obedience” on their lips; but when they leave you, a section of them meditate all night on things very different from what you tell them. But Allah records their nightly (plots): So keep clear of them, and put your trust in Allah, and enough is Allah as a disposer of affairs.
Do they not consider the Qur’an? Had it been from other than Allah, they would surely have found therein much discrepancy. When there comes to them some matter touching safety or fear, they divulge it. If they had only referred it to the Messenger, or to those charged with authority among them, the proper investigators would have understood it from them (directly). Were it not for the Grace and Mercy of Allah unto you, all but a few of you would have followed Satan.
Then fight in the cause of Allah – You are held responsible only for yourself – and rouse the believers. It may be that Allah will restrain the fury of the unbelievers; for Allah is the strongest in might and in punishment.
Whoever recommends and helps a good cause becomes a partner therein, and whoever recommends and helps an evil cause, shares in its burden. And Allah has power over all things.
The Section above is self explanatory. Only the underlined parts of the above Verses need explanation, as they look contradictory to each other. The parts are quoted below:
1. “All things are from Allah,”
2. “Whatever good, happens to you, is from Allah; but whatever evil happens to you, is from your soul (Naffs)”.
To explain it:
According to Hadith fate of everybody was written fifty thousand years before the creation of the Universe. All that will happen to a man are written, and where needed, the man is guided accordingly. Therefore, it can be said that: “All things are from Allah”.
Hadith: “The first thing that was created by Allah was the “Pen”. Allah then ordered the Pen to write. The Pen asked, what should it write? Allah ordered to write the fate of everything. The Pen wrote all those would happen from the beginning to the end.” –Tirmizi.
The Pen wrote on Lawh-Mahfuz (Protected Disc). The pen and Disc are parts of a Computer that is used by Allah to run this Universe. However, it did not write whatever it wanted to. It considered the nature of the souls (Naffs) and wrote what it would do spontaneously in different situations. Therefore, today when the person does that thing, he feels, he is doing that on his free will.
However, there are situations when he is compelled to do a thing– under pressure of other people, situation, etc. which are also predetermined in the way it happens. These imposed parts of fate are to test the person, or to coordinate his actions with other events of the society, or for some other reasons.
Major portions of our fates are as such that if there were no written fate we would do the same thing what we are doing now, because, it has been written by an absolutely developed computer considering the nature of our souls. A man will face Final Judgment; therefore, nothing is imposed on his free will unless it was necessary.
After the Universe has taken birth with necessary arrangements the fate has become fixed. A minor change would need changes in the past and future. Allah in front of our sight normally does not do abnormal thing (as we will face trial).
Though something have been incorporated in our fate but those are not bad things. Bad things have been incorporated by the Pen as the nature of our souls showed that it would fall into that bad.
However, Allah must have accepted the writings of the Pen, but for that one cannot held Allah responsible—nature of our souls wanted bad, so it has to face the bad consequences. So it can be said, as in underlined second part of above Verses: “Whatever good, happens to you, is from Allah; but whatever evil happens to you, is from your soul (Naffs)”.
This is a short explanation; “Pen and Disc (Lawh)” is discussed in the “Introduction of the Tafseer”.
Section-18 [Verse 86]: Greeting
When a greeting is offered you, meet it with a greeting still more courteous, or of equal courtesy. Allah takes careful account of all things.
Section-19 [Verse 87-93]: Slay them wherever you find them.
Allah! There is no god but He: of a surety He will gather you together against the Day of Judgment, about which there is no doubt. And whose word can be truer than Allah’s?
Then what is the matter with you that you are divided into two parties about the hypocrites? Allah has upset them for their deeds. Would you guide those whom Allah has thrown out of the Way? For those whom Allah has thrown out of the way, never shall you find the Way.
They but wish that you should reject Faith, as they do, and thus be on the same footing. So take not “Awliya” (protector/friend) from their ranks until they emigrate in the way of Allah. But if they turn renegades, seize them and slay them wherever you find them; and take neither Awliya nor helpers from their ranks – except those who join a group, between whom and you, there is a treaty, or those who approach you with hearts restraining them from fighting you, as well as, fighting their own people. If Allah had pleased, He could have given them power over you, and they would have fought you. Therefore if they withdraw from you, but fight you not, and offer you peace, then Allah has opened no way for you.
Others you will find that wish to gain your confidence as well as that of their people. Every time they are sent back to temptation, they succumb thereto: if they withdraw not from you, nor give you (guarantees) of peace besides restraining their hands, seize them and slay them wherever you get them. In their case We have provided you with a clear argument against them.
This section talks about hypocrites. Who are Hypocrites (Munafiques)? A Jew is a Jew, he is not Hypocrite. An infidel is an infidel, he is not a Hypocrite. Hypocrites are those people, who among Muslims identify themselves as Muslims but actually they are not. Their criterions are narrated in Section-4 of Chapter-2 and also in Section-26 of this Chapter. Yet it is very difficult to identify them, if at all one have to kill them.
In Prophets (pbuh) time there was a clearly identified hypocrite leader (Sulul). He had many people in his group. But Prophet (pbuh) did not materialize these Verses against them. Prophet (pbuh) said, if he would do that, people would say, Muhammad (pbuh) kills his own people.
It may be mentioned here that Verses related to Jihad remains ineffective until Prophet (pbuh) or Caliph or Shia Imam (in Shia majority area), or their Representative orders it to materialize. A simple Muslim, or a Leader of a Muslim group who do not have authority from Caliph in this respect, cannot identify a people as hypocrites and start killing them where ever he or they would get them.
As well as, in the Verses below you will find, what will happen to one if one would kills a Believer by mistake (may be in the process of killing hypocrites). It has made killing of hypocrites extremely difficult.
Probably, these Verses were revealed to threaten the hypocrites, as well as, to make them realize, what a great mistake they were doing.
Never should a believer kill a believer; but by mistake if one kills a believer, it is ordained that he should free a believing slave, and pay compensation to the deceased’s family, unless they remit it freely. If the deceased belonged to a people at war with you and he was a believer, the freeing of a believing slave. If he belonged to a people with whom you have treaty of Mutual alliance, compensation should be paid to his family, and a believing slave be freed. For those who find this beyond their means, a fast for two months running: by way of repentance to Allah. And Allah has all knowledge and all wisdom.
If a man kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell, to abide therein; and the wrath and the curse of Allah are upon him, and a dreadful penalty is prepared for him.
Section-20 [Verse 94-96]: A Grade Higher
O you who believe! When you go abroad in the cause of Allah, investigate carefully, and say not to anyone who offers you a salutation: “You are none of a believer”; seeking the perishable goods of the worldly life. There are much more profits and booties with Allah. Even as he is now, so were you yourselves before, till Allah conferred on you His favors, therefore, be cautious in discrimination. For Allah is well aware of all that you do.
Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) and receive no hurt, and those who strive and fight in the cause of Allah with their goods and their persons. Allah has granted a grade higher to those who strive and fight with their goods and persons than to those who sit (at home). Unto all Allah has promised good, but those who strive and fight He has distinguished above those who sit (at home), by a special reward—Ranks specially bestowed by Him, and Forgiveness and Mercy. And Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
There could be believers who sit at home and receive no hurt. It does not mean they are Hypocrites or Unbelievers. Allah says as in above Verses, “Unto all Allah has promised good, but those who strive and fight He has distinguished above those who sit (at home), by a special reward—Ranks specially bestowed by Him, and Forgiveness and Mercy”.
Section-21 [Verse 97-100]: Emigration in the Cause of Allah
When angels take the souls of those who die in sin against their souls, they say, “In what were you?” They reply, “Weak and oppressed were we in the earth.” They say, “Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you to move yourselves away?” Such men will find their abode in Hell – What an evil refuge! – Except those who are (really) weak and oppressed – men, women, and children – who have no means in their power, nor (a guide–post) to direct their way. For these, there is hope that Allah will forgive: For Allah does blot out (sins) and forgive again and again.
He who forsakes his home in the cause of Allah, finds in the earth many a refuge, wide and spacious: Should he die as a refugee from home for Allah and His Messenger, His reward becomes due and sure with Allah: And Allah is Oft–forgiving, Most Merciful.
Section-22 [Verse 101-104]: Prayer in March
When you travel through the earth, there is no blame on you if you shorten As-Salat, for fear the unbelievers may attack you, verily, the unbelievers are unto you open enemies.
When you are with them, and stand to lead them in prayer, let one party of them stand up with you, taking their arms with them; when they finish their prostrations, let them take their position in the rear. And let the other party come up which has not yet prayed – and let them pray with you, taking all precautions, and bearing arms. The unbelievers wish, if you were negligent of your arms and your baggage, to assault you in a single rush. But there is no blame on you if you put away your arms because of the inconvenience of rain or because you are ill; but take precaution for yourselves. For the unbelievers Allah has prepared a humiliating punishment.
When you pass prayers, celebrate Allah’s praises, standing, sitting down, or lying down on your sides; but when you are free from danger, perform As-Salat. Verily, As-Salat is enjoined on believers at stated times.
And slacken not in following up the enemy; if you are suffering hardships, they are suffering similar hardships; but you have hope from Allah, while they have none. And Allah is full of knowledge and wisdom.
Section-23 [Verse 105-126]: Do not argue for Betrayers
We have sent down to you the Book in truth, that you might judge between men, as guided by Allah: so be not as an advocate by those who betray their trust. And seek the forgiveness of Allah; for Allah is Oft–forgiving, Most Merciful.
And argue not on behalf of those who deceive themselves. Verily, Allah does not like anyone who is a betrayer, sinner. They may hide from men, but they cannot hide from Allah, seeing that He is with them when they plot by night, in words that He cannot approve. And Allah does compass round all that they do. Ah! You are those who have argued for them in the life of this world, but who will argue for them on the Day of Judgment against Allah, or who will then be their defender?
If any one does evil or wrongs his own soul but afterwards seeks Allah’s forgiveness, he will find Allah Oft–forgiving, Most Merciful. And if any one earns sin, he earns it against His own soul. And Allah is full of knowledge and wisdom. But if any one earns a fault or a sin and throws it on to one that is innocent, He carries a falsehood and a flagrant sin.
Had not the grace of Allah and His mercy upon you, a party of them would certainly have plotted to lead you astray. But they will only lead their own souls astray, and to you they can do no harm in the least. For Allah has sent down to you the Book and wisdom and taught you what you knew not: And great is the grace of Allah unto you.
In most of their secret talks there is no good, but if one exhorts to a deed of charity or justice or conciliation between men: To him who does this, seeking the good pleasure of Allah, We shall soon give a reward of the highest.
If anyone contends with the Messenger even after guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that becoming to men of Faith, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell – what an evil refuge!
Allah forgive not joining other gods with Him; but He forgives whom He pleases other sins than this, and one who joins other gods with Allah, has strayed far, far away. Leaving Him, call but upon female deities, and they invoke nothing but Satan, the persistent rebel!
Allah did curse him, but he said: “I will take of Your servants a portion marked off; I will mislead them, and I will create in them false desires; I will order them to slit the ears of cattle, and to deface the nature created by Allah.” Whoever, forsaking Allah, takes Satan as a wali (protector/helper), has of a surety, suffered a loss that is manifest. Satan makes them promises, and creates in them false desires; but Satan’s promises are nothing but deception. They will have their dwelling in Hell, and from it they will find no way of escape.
But those who believe and do deeds of righteousness – we shall soon admit them to Jannaat, with rivers flowing beneath – to dwell therein forever. Allah’s promise is the truth, and whose word can be truer than Allah’s?
It will not be in accordance of your desires, nor of those of the People of the Book, whoever works evil, will have the recompense thereof. Nor will he find, besides Allah, any protector or helper. If any do deeds of righteousness – be they male or female – and have faith, they will enter Jannaat, and not the least injustice will be done to them.
Who can be better in religion than one who submits his whole self to Allah, does good, and follows the way of Abraham the true in Faith? For Allah did take Abraham as a friend. But to Allah belong all things in the skies and on earth: And He it is that encompasses all things.
Section-24 [Verse 127-135]: Justice to Women and Orphans
They ask your instruction concerning the women say: Allah does instruct you about them, and what has been rehearsed unto you in the Book, concerning the orphans of women to whom you give not the portions prescribed, and yet whom you desire to marry, as also concerning the children who are weak and oppressed, that you stand firm for justice to orphans. And whatever good you do, Allah is Ever Well-Acquainted with what you do.
If a wife fears cruelty or desertion on her husband’s part, there is no blame on them if they arrange an amicable settlement between themselves; and such settlement is best; even though men’s souls are swayed by greed. But if you do good and practise self–restraint, Allah is well–acquainted with all that you do.
You are never able to be fair and just as between women, even if it is your ardent desire, but turn not away altogether, so as to leave her hanging. If you come to a friendly understanding, and practise self–restraint, Allah is Oft–forgiving, Most Merciful.
But if they disagree (and must part), Allah will provide abundance for all from His all-reaching bounty: for Allah is He that care for all, and is Wise.
To Allah belong all things in the Skies and on Lands. Verily we have directed the People of the Book before you, and you to fear Allah. But if you deny Him, lo! unto Allah belongs all things in the Skies and on Lands, and Allah is free of all wants, worthy of all Praise. Yea, unto Allah belong all things in the Skies and on Lands, and enough is Allah to carry through all affairs. If it were His will, He could destroy you, O mankind, and create another race; for He has power this to do. If anyone desires a reward in this life, in Allah’s (gift) is the reward of this life and of the hereafter: for Allah is He that hear and see.
O you who believe, stand out firmly for justice as witnesses to Allah, even as against yourselves or your parents or your kin, and whether it be rich or poor, Allah can best protect both. Follow not the lusts, lest you swerve, and if you distort or decline to do justice, verily Allah is well–acquainted with all that you do.
A dangerous warning has been given in above Verses: “If it were His will, He could destroy you, O mankind, and create another race; for He has power this to do.” If something is written in divine Verse, there remains a chance that it may be materialized. Therefore, remain very careful in judgment specially that are related to women and orphans.
Section-25 [Verse 136-147]: The Signs of Hypocrisy – taking unbelievers as aulia (protector/helper/friend that guides).
O you who believe! Believe in Allah and His Messenger, and the scripture which He has sent to His Messenger and the scripture which He sent to those before. Any who deny Allah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers, and the Day of Judgment, has gone far, far astray.
Those who believe, then reject faith, then believe and reject faith, and go on increasing in unbelief – Allah will not forgive them, nor guide them on the way. To the Hypocrites give the glad tidings that there is for them a grievous penalty – Yea, to those who take for Auliya (protector, helper, friend) unbelievers rather than believers, is it honor they seek among them? Nay – all honor is with Allah.
Already has He sent you Word in the Book, that when you hear the Verses of Allah held in defiance and ridicule, you are not to sit with them unless they turn to a different theme; if you did, you would be like them. Surely, Allah will collect the hypocrites and those who defy faith – all in Hell.
The ones who wait and watch about you; if you do gain a victory from Allah, they say: “Were we not with you?” But if the unbelievers gain a success, they say: “Did we not gain an advantage over you, and did we not guard you from the believers?” Allah will judge between you on the Day of Judgment. And never will Allah grant to the unbelievers a way over the believers.
The hypocrites – they think they are over–reaching Allah, but He will over–reach them. And when they stand up for As-Salat, they stand without earnestness, to be seen of men, but little do they hold Allah in remembrance; distracted in mind even in the midst of it – being for neither one group nor for another whom Allah leaves straying – never will you find for him the way.
O you who believe! Take not for Auliya (protector, helper, friend) unbelievers rather than believers. Do you wish to offer Allah an open proof against yourselves? The Hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire; no helper will you find for them – except for those who repent, mend (their lives) hold fast to Allah, and purify their religion as in Allah’s sight, if so, they will be with the believers. And soon will Allah grant to the believers a reward of immense value. What can Allah gain by your punishment, if you are grateful and you believe? Nay, it is Allah that recognize, and know all things.
Section-26 [Verse 148-149]: Conceal Evil
Allah loves not that evil should be uttered in public speech, except where injustice has been done; for Allah is He who hears and knows all things.
Whether you disclose a good deed, or conceal it, or cover evil with pardon, verily Allah does blot out (sins) and has power.
Conceal evil (except where injustice has been done). If you conceal other’s evil, may be, Allah will conceal your evil on the Day of Judgment.
Uttering evil deeds in public may allure other people to do the same. It helps in spreading vices in the society for which persons uttering evil may be penalized by God. As for exaple, when one proudly says, “I have 3 girfriends” is alluring others to try for the same.
Section-27 [Verse 150-152]: No Midway
Those who deny Allah and His Messengers, and wish to separate Allah from His Messengers, saying, “We believe in some but reject others”, and wish to take a course midway – they are in truth unbelievers; and we have prepared for unbelievers a humiliating punishment. And those who believe in Allah and His Messengers and make no distinction between any of the Messengers, we shall soon give their rewards; and Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
Part-3: Concluding Lessons
Section-28 [Verse 153-162]: Jews – the followers of old messages
The people of the Book ask you to cause a book to descend to them from heaven. Indeed they asked Moses for an even greater, for they said: “Show us Allah in public” but they were dazed for their presumption, with thunder and lightning. Then they worshipped the calf even after clear signs had come to them; even so we forgave them; and We gave Moses manifest proofs of authority.
And for their covenant we raised over them of Mount (Sinai); and we said: “Enter the gate with humility”; and we commanded them: “Transgress not in the matter of the Sabbath.” And we took from them a solemn covenant. In that they broke their covenant; that they rejected the signs of Allah; that they slew the Messengers in defiance of right; that they said, “Our hearts are the wrappings (which preserve Allah’s Word; We need no more)” – Nay, Allah has set the seal on their hearts for their blasphemy, and little is it they believe.
That they rejected Faith; that they uttered against Mary a grave false charge. That they said, “We killed Christ Jesus the son of Mary, the Messenger of Allah” – but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but so it was made to appear to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts, with no knowledge, but only conjecture to follow, for of a surety they killed him not . Nay, Allah raised him up unto Himself; and Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise. And there is none of the People of the Book but must believe in him before his death; and on the Day of Judgment he will be a witness against them.
For the iniquity of the Jews We made unlawful for them certain (foods) good and wholesome which had been lawful for them – in that they hindered many from Allah’s Way. That they took usury, though they were forbidden; and that they devoured men’s substance wrongfully. And we have prepared for those among them who reject faith a grievous punishment.
But those among them who are well-grounded in knowledge, and the Believers, believe in what has been revealed to you and what was revealed before you; and those who perform As-Salat, and give Zakat and believe in Allah and in the Last Day, to them shall We soon give a great reward.
Section-29 [Verse 163-170]: Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah.
We have sent you inspiration, as We sent it to Noah and the Messengers after him. We sent inspiration to Abraham, Ismail, Isaac, Jacob and the Tribes, to Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, and Solomon, and to David We gave the Psalms. Of some Messengers We have already told you the story; of others we have not–– and to Moses Allah spoke direct. Messengers, as bearers of good news, as well as, of warning, in order that mankind should have no plea against Allah after the Messengers. And Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise.
But Allah bears witness that what He has sent down unto you, He has sent it with His knowledge, and the angels bear witness. And enough is Allah as a witness.
Those who reject Faith and keep off (men) from the way of Allah, have verily strayed far, far away from the Path. Those who reject Faith and do wrong – Allah will not forgive them nor guide them to anyway – except the way of Hell, to dwell therein forever. And this to Allah is easy.
O mankind! The Messenger has come to you in truth from Allah. Believe in him, it is better for you. But if you reject Faith, to Allah belongs all things in the skies and on land. And Allah is All–Knowing, All–wise.
Section-30 [Verse 171-175]: Messiah Jesus—the Sign
O People of the Book! Commit no excesses in your religion: Nor say of Allah aught but the truth. Christ Jesus the son of Mary was a Messenger of Allah and His Word (Qalamullah) which He bestowed on Mary, and His Soul (Ruhullah): so believe in Allah and His Messengers. Say not “Trinity”: desist: it will be better for you: for Allah is One God: Glory be to Him: above having a son. To Him belong all things in the skies and on earth. And enough is Allah as a Disposer of affairs.
Christ disdain nor to serve and worship Allah, nor do the angels, those nearest. Those who disdain His worship and are arrogant – He will gather them all together unto Himself to (answer). But to those who believe and do deeds of righteousness, He will give their rewards – and more, out of His bounty. But those who are disdainful and arrogant, He will punish with a grievous penalty. And they will not find for themselves besides Allah any protector or helper.
O mankind! Verily there hath come to you a convincing proof from your Lord; and We have sent unto you a light manifest. Then those who believe in Allah and hold fast to Him – soon will He admit them to Mercy and Grace from Himself, and guide them to Himself by a straight Way.
To discuss, why Christians call Jesus God, and how the Quran has answered the matter in above Verses, a little deliberate discussion is needed.
“And We made The son of Mary And his mother as a Sign” –Al Quran 23:50
“He said: “So: Thy Lord saith, ‘That is easy for Me: and to appoint him as a Sign unto men And aMercy from Us: It is a matter decreed.” –Al Quran 19: 21
As in above Verses, Jesus was a Sign; but, Sign of what? Is it to show that Allah can create human being without a father? Allah, who could create Adam without any father or mother, did not need to show this Sign, just to prove His capability; it otherwise confused many people—many think Jesus as begotten son of Almighty God, as he did not have a biological father. Almighty God knew that this confusion would arise; even then, He has placed this Sign—Why?
Actually, it was needed to show the ultimate state of a successful human. It otherwise forms the basis of Sufi Ideology. If one has to strive—strive to attain that level.
In the Quran Jesus is called Qalamullah (Word of God)—Almighty God talked through the mouth of Jesus. Almighty God could talk through the mouth of Jesus, because the Soul of Almighty God was extended into Jesus; so Jesus is also called in the Quran, Ruhullah (Soul of God).
A child must require learning to talk, but child Jesus was talking just after birth; it looks like, Almighty God talked through his mouth—it was not the child in the lap of Marry talking; it was Almighty God talking on behalf of the child; such a “Word of God” Jesus was.
Jesus is Messiah. Messiah means anointed (one). When a person is taken over by some external spirit he is called “anointed”. Jesus was taken over by Almighty God. Meshing of the soul of Almighty God and the physic of Jesus was so intense and intimate that Almighty God could talk through the mouth of Jesus.
“…The words that I have spoken to you, “Jesus said to his disciples, “do not come from me. The Father (Almighty God), who remains in me, does his own work.”–John 14:10, Holy Bible.
However, it did not make Jesus “God” or “Son of God” or “One of Three”; it only made him a “Home of Almighty God”. Jesus had an independent entity as a normal human being with his body and human souls (Ruhh and Naffs).
“O people of the Book (Bible)! Commit no excesses in your religion: nor say of Allah aught but the truth. Messiah (Christ) Jesus the son of Mary was a Messenger of Allah, And His Word(Qalamullah) which He bestowed on Mary, And His Soul (Ruhullah): so believe In Allah and His Messengers. Say not “Trinity” desist: It will be better for you: For Allah is one God: Glory be to Him: above Having a son. To Him belong all things in the Skies and on Lands. And enough is Allah as a Disposer of Affairs.” –Al Quran 4: 171.
Jesus was created pure by birth; so he was created holy without a biological father. Satan could never come to Mary and Jesus (they were always guarded by Gabriel and supporting angels). Likewise, after Final Judgment many humans will be purified to be a “Home of Almighty God”.
Almighty God has different means to rule over His creations, “Lawh-Mahfuz and angels”, “Kalb of a Mumin” etc., are among those that are known to us. Selected purified Human beings as the “Home of Almighty God” are another means through who Almighty God may expose or rule over the creation.
It is worth mentioning that a normal human being cannot be raised up to that level in the span of life on Earth—Jesus was created specially. Therefore, if the words that look divine, come out through any other’s mouth, maybe he is lying, or, he misunderstood himself; tell him to exercise the power of Almighty God, at least by making a dead cockroach alive.
However, Jesus said, if one believed and followed him, one could do what he could do. Nobody, except a few, could reach there. Only a few Muslim saints (Sufis) occasionally showed signs of development toward that direction.
“Jesus answered, “For a long time I have been with you all; yet you do not know me, Philip? Whoever has seen me has seen the Father (Almighty God/ Allah). Why, then, do you say, ‘Show us the Father (Almighty God)’? Do you not believe, Philip, that I am in the Father (Almighty God) and the Father (Almighty God) is in me? The words that I have spoken to you, “Jesus said to his disciples, “do not come from me. The Father (Almighty God), who remains in me, does his own work. Believe me when I say that I am in the Father (Almighty God) and the Father (Almighty God) is in me. If not, believe because of the thing I do. I am telling you the truth: those who believe in me will do what I do — yes, they will do even greater things, because I am going to the Father (Almighty God). And I will do whatever you ask for in my name, so that the Father’s (Almighty God) glory will be shown through the Son (?). If you ask me for anything in my name, I will do it. If you love me, you will obey my commandments. I will ask the Father (Almighty God), and he will give you another Helper (the Paraclete), who will stay with you forever.” –John 14 (9–16), The Holy Bible.
[Bible is corrupted. In above Verses word “Father” has been inserted in places of Almighty God’s names, and word “son” has been inserted in places of Jesus, servant etc.]
In the above Verses, Jesus says: “those who believe in me will do what I do”. And he informs about a Paraclete (Prophet Muhammad, pbuh) who would guide further.
Therefore, if words look like claiming divinity, un-intentionally comes out from any other’s mouth, leave him alone; don’t do what Jews did in case of Jesus, or Muslims did in case of Mansoor-al-Hallaz. A few Muslim Saints, in the history after Jesus, in a few cases, could bring a few dead alive, by Allah’s permission. It showed that, reaching to higher level by common people is also possible in this life (life on the Earth). But, it is a special path of Islam (known as Sufism).
I attended a few lectures of Sufi teachers. It seems that their concept reflects the concept revealed in the above Verses of Holy Bible. Sufis teach the practice of Murakaba (Sufi meditation) to reach in different stages, such as, Fana-fi-Allah (annihilation in Almighty God), Baka-bi-Allah (controlled annihilation in Almighty God) etc. Baka-bi-Allah is known highest level. Prophet Jesus was, by born, in the highest level in this path. It is the level of “Messiah” (Christ).
The concept is also expressed in the following Hadith:
“When I love him I am his hearing with which he hears, his seeing with which he sees, his hand with which he strikes, and his foot with which he walks.” –Hadith-e-Qudsi
According to above Hadith when Allah loves any of His servants He becomes his hearing, seeing, hand, foot etc. It is not spiritual or conceptual hearing, seeing, hand, or foot; as well as, it is not the hearing, seeing, hand, or foot of logic. The Hadith is clear in this aspect, Allah becomes his hand with which he strikes; Allah becomes his foot with which he walks. And notice it is a Hadis-e-Qudsi. So, Allah becomes his real hand and foot. But, that does not make one God. Instead, one becomes a “Home of God”. Allah may extend His soul throughout one’s body; as the Soul of Allah was extended into the body of Jesus (so he is called Ruhullah).
This meshing of human physic and the Soul of Almighty God, in a deep form, makes a person Messiah. Messiah means anointed (one). When a person is taken over by some external spirit he is called “anointed”. Jesus was taken over by Almighty God. Meshing of the soul of Almighty God and the physic of Jesus was so intense and intimate that Almighty God could talk through the mouth of Jesus (so he is called Qalamullah).
You may find in the Holy Bible that Jesus is called “Son of God”; as well as, Almighty God is called “Father”. A father would never anoint his son. A “son” would be a predecessor, but there is no chance of Almighty God dying. Original books of New Testament are lost; all are translated copies. Probably, some important people (important races like, Greek, Roman etc.) thought Jesus as Son of God, so, it has been written that way.
Nobody used to call Jesus Son of God until he was declared as such in Rome, long after Jesus passed away from the Earth.
Most of the people in Rome accepted Christianity; so, at certain stage Emperor of Rome had to accept it too. Roman Emperors used to think themselves “descendants of god”, how they could follow a simple human! Therefore, when Emperor of Rome accepted Christianity, as he asked, who Jesus was, he was told, Jesus was the “Son of Almighty God”. Thereafter, who could dare in Rome to write Jesus anything else! It started from there. Subsequently, as Christianity was spread by Romans throughout the world, it spread out. Now in the New Testament name of Almighty God (Allah/Aloe) is not there (almost completely erased); all are replaced by “Father”. Once there is a “Father” the Son(s) has automatically come in. I am deeply convinced that Jesus never called Almighty God, Father; or never claimed himself as the Son of God, not even meaningless “Son of Man”; Jesus used to call himself Eswah (Isa), as simple as that.
Jesus is the final Prophet in the branch of Isaac, placed as a Sign (a demonstration) to call people in this line (Sufism) according to the guidance of a Paraclete (Prophet Muhammad, pbuh).
And, it is discussed in this Surah (Surah Nisa) that mainly aims to form Islamic Societies (with families as units). Once Islamic Societies are established – peace is established – once peace is established – scope to fight a Jihad is reduced – then one should devote oneself in the endeavor to gain spiritual uplift – that is the major jihad.
Messiah is not one. According to the following Verse of Holy Bible (Gospel of Barnabas) Muhammad (pbuh) is also a Messiah.
Bible of Barnabas: ”Jesus answered: “The name of the Messiah is admirable, for God himself gave him the name when he had created his soul, and placed it in a celestial splendour. God said: “Wait Mohammed; for thy sake I will to create paradise, the world, and a great multitude of creatures, whereof I make thee a present, insomuch that whoso bless thee shall be blessed, and whoso shall curse thee shall be accursed. When I shall send thee into the world I shall send thee as my messenger of salvation, and thy word shall be true, insomuch that heaven and earth shall fail, but thy faith shall never fail.” Mohammed is his blessed name.’ Then the crowd lifted up their voices, saying: `O God, send us thy messenger: O Admirable One, come quickly for the salvation of the world!’”–Barnabas 97: (9-10), Holy Bible.
[The Italian manuscript replaces "Admirable One" with "Muhammad"]
According to another version of the Gospel of Barnabas:
‘Then said the priest: “How shall the Messiah be called?” (Jesus answered) “Muhammad is his blessed name” –Gospel of Barnabas, Ch- 97
On the other hand, in the Quran, Jesus is mentioned as Messiah:
“And because of their saying, “We killed Messiah Isa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), the Messenger of Allah,” – but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but it appeared so to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts. They have no knowledge, they follow nothing but conjecture. For surely; they killed him not” –Al Quran 4:157
“Surely, they have disbelieved who say: “Allah is the Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary).” But the Messiah said: “O Children of Israel! Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord.” Verily, whosoever sets up partners with Allah, then Allah has forbidden Paradise to him, and the Fire will be his abode. And for the Zalimun there are no helpers.” –Al Quran 5:72
There are several other Verses in the Quran where Jesus has been mentioned as Messiah.
Therefore, both of them (Muhammad, pbuh and Jesus) were Messiahs.
However, divine Verses contained in the Gospel of Luke, Matthew, John etc, do not mention that there is a second Messiah. Gospel of Barnabas looks like a supporting book (like the Hadith of Prophet Muhammad, pbuh); it remove doubts and misconceptions. Gospel of Barnabas identifies itself in the same way.
Bible of Barnabas: “Jesus turned himself to him who writes, and said: “Barnabas, see that by all means you write my gospel concerning all that has happened through my dwelling in the world. And write in a similar manner that which has befallen Judas, in order that the faithful may be undeceived, and every one may believe the truth.” Then answered he who writes: “I will do so, if God wills, O Master; but I do not know what happened to Judas, for I did not see it.” Jesus answered: “Here are John and Peter who saw everything, and they will tell you all that has passed.” And then Jesus commanded us to call his faithful disciples [so] that they might see him. So James and John called together the seven disciples with Nicodemus and Joseph, and many others of the seventy-two, and they ate with Jesus. –Gospel of Barnabas, Ch-221.
If Jesus was a messiah, and Muhammad (pbuh) was also a messiah, then why should we think that messiahs have to be only two; there may be more. A person trying to be a “Home of God” is otherwise trying to be a Messiah.
“The MESSIAH will never be proud to reject to be a slave to Allah, nor the angels who are the near (to Allah). And whosoever rejects His worship and is proud, then He will gather them all together unto Himself.” –Al Quran 4:172
When one becomes a Mumin by accepting Islam, one is connected to Allah through one’s “kalb”, and one start feeling divine love and mercy. Now, one feels that one has achieved everything. Alas, it was only the first step! However, becoming a Mumin and remaining in Sariah is enough for a person to achieve Jannah (paradise). Teachings and Practices set by Muhammad (pbuh) has made the path (Sariah).
One following the path (Sariah) will not be lost in the Sufi concept and prayer. To know Sufism one must have deliberate knowledge of Islam, otherwise it may create harming misconception; as Christians have about God concerning Father, Son, Children, Mary, One, Three in One, and even about Angel Gabriel. Or, as the Hindus have: they think Almighty God took human form (Krishna is an example) to enjoy (enjoy lots of women). Though Krishna was advising Pandabs in war that has ultimately formed an important book of Hindu religion (Bhagabat Gita); but what was his main job is difficult to understand.
Sufi ideology in Islam is purified. It guides one properly, to uplift one, near to the level of the Sign (Jesus) while living in the perfectness of Sariah. Some important books of Sufism are: “Tazkeratul Awlia” by Fariduddin Attar, “Kimia Shahadat” by Imam Gazzali, books written by Abdul Kadir Jilani, and there are many other.
Talking of Sufism is not suggested by many Muslim religious scholars. Here boundary between Shirk (attributing partner to Almighty God, the ultimate sin according to the Quran) and Iman (believing One God) is thin. Correct perception needs perfect knowledge on Islam and a soul with spiritual feelings. People only talk; if one really wants to move into the path of Sufism, one should gain knowledge, and demonstrate true love for Almighty God. One should leave all properties, stay away from “Ria”, never avail any amusement or luxury until Almighty God is one’s—that is the demonstration of true love for Almighty God (footsteps of Ibrahim Adham, Bayazid Bistami, Rabeya Basri, Abdul Kadir Jilai or people of the same line); and then, wait in that state, until one is accepted by Almighty God, as for Himself; as Jesus was: “I am in the Aloe and the Aloe is in me”. This is the Major Jihad.
Often Sufi concept and practice makes a person unsuitable for family, society and nation. Many Sufis have been seen denies marrying and leading family life. Muhammad (pbuh) developed a religion of day to day life, for normal people (which is Sariah), keeping the path of Sufism open.
[Following of the path of Sufism does not release a person from his duties to his family and from the duties to his society under the leadership of the Imam of his Local Mosque]
Call of Truth has reached everybody, and in the process of reaching new comers. Now, one should focus oneself on Major Jihad; it is the struggle, to purify one’s “naffs” and keep the “kalab” sound, out of love, to be accepted by Almighty God.
“The Day whereon neither Wealth nor sons will avail, But only he That brings to Allah a sound kalab” –Al Quran 26: (88–89)
Part-4: Clearing Doubts
Section-31 [Verse 176]: Kalalah
They ask you for a legal decision. Say, Allah directs (thus) about Al-Kalalah. If it is a man that dies, leaving a sister but no son, she shall have half the inheritance. If a woman, who left no son, her brother takes her inheritance. If there are two sisters, they shall have two–thirds of the inheritance; if there are brothers and sisters, the male having twice the share of the female. Thus does Allah make clear to you, lest you err. And Allah has knowledge of all things.
In Section-5 it has been discussed that kalalah is a person who has no parents (Al Kalalah—A Man in Crown—So he is Head of the Familly—So his Parents are Dead). But he (Kalalah) has child/children. Therefore, according to that verse (Verse-12) total 1/3 went to the brothers and sisters of deceased person and rest 2/3 went to deceased person’s wife and children as was specified in those Verses (Verses of Section-5).
There (in Section-5) it had been a question: what happens, if kalalah left no child, should his brothers and sisters still get 1/3 (and wife gets the rest), or who takes the inheritance of a woman kalalah who had no parents and no husband (is it her Father in Law?)? These questions have been answered in this Verse.
Traditional explanation of kalalah is: a person who has neither ascendant nor descendant. But in my view, inSection-5 kalalah do not have parents only (for woman parents and husband) he has children. But in this Verse (Verse 156) kalalah has neither ascendant nor descendant as it is mentioned specifically in this Verse that he has no son. And as in this Verse, the brothers and sisters of the deceased are given 1 (full), 1/2 or 2/3, it is clear that he does not have daughter(s) as well.
For ease of explanation I have divided relevant portions of this Verse in four parts (Serial-12 to Serial-15) as below.
12. “Allah directs (thus) about Al-Kalalah. If it is a man that dies, leaving a sister but no son, she shall have half the inheritance:”
In this case, sister gets half, which otherwise means that deceased person does not have a daughter as well. He has no father, no mother, no brother, no son, no daughter. His closest relatives are sister and wife. As sister’s share is mentioned as 1/2 rest 1/2 goes to his wife (or wives).
13. “…If a woman, who left no son, her brother takes her inheritance:”
Brother inherits her property. Remember the explanation of kalalah given in Section-5. A woman is kalalah when her Father, Mother and Husband are dead. And this Verse talks about the situation when kalalah has no son. So, her brother takes full.
The division of property shows that she has no daughter and no sister as well. If she (kalalah) had one daughter, daughter would get 1/2 and if she had more daughters they would share 2/3 as in Section-5, rest would go to deceased person’s brother.
If she (deceased person) had brother and sister, the brother’s portion would be divided in 2:1.
14. “If there are two sisters, they shall have two-thirds of the inheritance:”
The case is linked to serial-12 above. Sisters of deceased person get 2/3. Rest 1/3 goes to his wife (or wives). (Deceased man has no father, no mother, no son, no daughter).
15. “if there are brothers and sisters, the male having twice the share of the female.”
The case is linked to serial-14 above. They (brothers and sisters of deceased person) get 2/3 at the rate of 2:1. Rest goes to his wife (or wives). (Deceased man has no father, no mother, no son, no daughter).