Chapter-1 Al Fatiha
Al Fatiha (THE OPENING)
This Surah clearly identifies God we worship. This Surah is called “Mother of the Quran”—the gist given in 7 Verses.
Section-1 [Verse 1]: Opening
Section-2 [Verse: 2-3]: Universes
Section-3 [Verse: 4]: The Day of Judgment.
Section-4 [Verse: 5–7]: Prayer
Section-1 [Verse 1]: Opening
In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
Section-2 [Verse: 2-3]: Universes
Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the Universes (Alamin); Most Gracious, Most Merciful;
Allah is Cherisher and Sustainer of the Universes.
The above Verses talk about more than one universe (Alamin). Subsequently from the Quran we come to know about two universes; those are:
1. “Samawat” (Skies), also called “Samawat–wal–Ard” (Skies and Lands).
2. “Jannaat”, known as Paradise.
The Universe, where we are living now, is composed of billions of galaxies. In the Quran, this universe is called “Samawat” (Skies) or “Samawat–wal–Ard” (Skies and Lands).
Space of this Universe is curved or waved in seven layers (like peels of onion one inside another)—the Seven Skies. Each Sky contains innumerable galaxies. Each galaxy contains many lands (objects like stars, planets, etc.). Each of these Skies is expanding. Therefore, as a whole, the universe is expanding.
With power and skill did We construct the Skies (Samawat/Universe): for it is We Who cause it to expand–Al Quran 51:47
The expansion of the Universe was discovered in 1920’s when an American Scientist Edwin Hubble demonstrated that galaxies in all directions and depths were moving straight backward. It otherwise shows that they originated from a single unit of creation.
“For, as many astronomers were quick to see, if the universe is expanding now, then it must have started form some great original explosion. This is the Big Bang model of the universe” – ‘The Expanding Universe’ by John Gribbin.
Do not the unbelievers see that the skies and the lands were joined together (as one unit of creation) before We clove them asunder–Al Quran 21:30
Jannaat, known as paradise, is a separate Universe:
Be ye foremost forgiveness from your Lord, and the Jannaat the width of which is as the width of the ‘Skies and Lands’ (universe)–Al Quran 57:2.
Because only a few will be saved, God created two worlds, instead of only one– 2 Esdras: 7:50, Holy Bible.
The Universe (Samawat/Samawat-wal-Ard) is at least 25 billion light years across. Width of Jannaat equal.
The objects of Jannaat (may be like the planets) are spread in eight layers of its space.
Martyrs live in the Jannaat located under the Arsh, look like bright stars from the Seventh Sky”–Hadith.
“In Jannaat, one from the lower class will observe the higher, like a rising star in the eastern or western corner of the Sky.” –Bukhari Sharif.
Jannaat (another Universe) is full of habitable objects (like planets). It is natural living place of humans, as Adam and Eve were created over there.
Samawat (this universe) is a violent place (only the Earth has been made suitable for humans). This universe is natural living place of Jinns who are created from the fire of a scorching wind.
And the Jinn race, We had created before, from the fire of a scorching wind–Al Quran 15:27
Allah is cherishing humans and jinns toward the maturity. He sustains all natural laws. He is sustaining and cherishing the universes that will terminate its present term of evolution on the Day of Final Judgment.
Section-3 [Verse: 4]: The Day of Judgment.
Master of the Day of Judgment.
The universe is expanding—galaxies are going away from each other. Due to gravitational force expansion of the Universe may stop, and the Universe may begin to contract. At the end of contraction, all the objects of the universe will join together.
“For just as galaxies are combined by the attractive force of gravity; the total mass of the whole universe provides an insistent tug on every galaxy and cluster of galaxies within the universe. As the universe expands out ward from the initial explosion of the Big Bang, the gravitational tug gradually decreases. But it is always present, and if there is enough matter, eventually gravity will overcome the expansion, and the universe will slow to a halt. The whole drama will then be played out in reverse. The universe will collapse faster and faster under the over whelming pulls of gravity until it is squashed into another fireball.” – ‘To the Edge of Eternity’ by John Gribbin
The Universe will collapse. All the matters of the Universe will join together. Due to extremely powerful gravitational force the universe may contract to a state of Singularity. Singularity is defined as a super-hot, super-dense point in space-time. Singularity at the end of the universe is called Big Crunch.
Scientific prediction reveals that the Universe may collapse. On the other hand, we know from the Quran that on the Day of Judgment, all the lands will be in the hand of Allah, as the skies will be rolled up:
No just estimate have they made of Allah, such as is due to Him: On the Day of Judgment all of the lands (stars, planets etc.) will be in His hand, and the skies will be rolled up in His right hand: Glory to Him, high is He above the partners they attribute to Him –Al Quran 39: 67
It means that the Universe will contract. At the end, all the objects of the Universe (stars, planets, etc.) will join together in the hand of Allah. It will be a huge object created out of all the matter of the Universe. That huge object will be only place existing for Resurrection and Final Judgment. This state of the universe is termed in the Quran as “Sakal” (Discussed in Surah Ar-Rahman). Sakal may be a state of the Collapsed Universe immediately before the Big Crunch Singularity.
When the stars will fall, losing their luster–Al Quran 8:2
By the sky that returns (in its round). And by the land that opens out–Al Quran 86: (11–12)
Therefore, the Final Judgment will be carried out in the Collapsed Universe (Rolled-up Samawat). That is the day when present natural laws will cease to exist—everything will be under the direct control of Allah—He is the “Master of the Day of Judgment”.
Moving to Jannaat:
After the Judgment good people will be salvaged from the Collapsed Universe to another universe named Jannaat through a passage called As-Sirat.
Falling into the Hell:
Sinners will be left in the Collapsed Universe. The Universe will not remain collapsed forever. The huge amount of matter, energies, and forces, joined together, cannot remain united forever. It will explode (Big Bang–2) and the universe will be created again.
“But it is also possible that expansion will be reversed by the pull of gravity, that all matter will collapse once again into a super-dense ‘singularity’ and that another universe will be born in another Big Bang a cycle that could be repeated forever”. – ‘To the Edge of Eternity’ by John Gribbin.
After the Final Judgment the Universe may contract to a state of Singularity then explode, or may explode from a Non-Singular State.
“The universe will collapse faster and faster under the overwhelming pull of gravity until it is squashed into another fireball, perhaps then to bounce back out again”.- ‘To the Edge of Eternity’ by John Gribbin.
The day when We will roll up the skies like the rolling up of scroll for writings: as We originated the first creation, We shall reproduce it; a promise on Us: Truly We will fulfill it–Al Quran 21:104
The Re–Created Universe (Samawat) is the Hell. Ever-living sinful people will be scattered in the galaxies of the Re–Created Universe (Samawat). A person may get a whole galaxy. In his galaxy he is the vicegerent of God, though due to the inherent nature of the Universe he will be in pain.
Behold. In the creation of the ‘skies and lands’ (universe); And the alternation of night and day—there are indeed signs for men of understanding. Men who celebrate the praises of Allah, standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides and contemplate the creation in the skies and lands “Our Lord! not for naught have Thou created this! Glory to Thee! Give us salvation from the penalty of the fire (Fire of Hell)–Al Quran 3: (190–191).
Following verse clearly states that the Universe possesses the fire of hell.
And We have adorned the lowest sky with lamps (stars) Have made such missiles (asteroids) to drive away the satan And have prepared for them the penalty of the blazing fire of hell–Al Quran 67:5
According to the Verse above, the Lowest Sky possesses the “lamps” (stars), “missiles” (asteroids/ meteorites) and the “blazing fire of hell”. What about other skies?
Hadith: During Miraz I saw in the Seventh Sky that, there was thunder and roaring sound and a group of people. Their bellies were as big as houses. In those, there were many snakes, which were being seen from the outside. I asked to Zibrael, which kind of people they were? He said, “It is the scene of those, who took interest (riba) by lending money.–Sahih Al Bukhari
Read details of Miraj when Prophet (pbuh) observed objects of hell in all the skies.
Hadith: On the day of final judgment Allah will assemble whole mankind. Then Allah will say, ‘People will follow, whom they worshipped, he must go with him’. Accordingly, those who used to worship the Sun will follow the Sun. That means, they will be compelled to go there, where the Sun will reach. Those who used to worship the Moon, will be compelled to follow the Moon. Those who used to worship different idols, will be compelled to follow those idols. That means, they will be compelled to go there, where those idols will reach.–Bukhari Sharif
This model of the Universe will be elaborated subsequently when related verses will come. It is already highlighted in this discussion that a similar model is suggested by the modern scientists.
In the following diagram I have pointed out the Sakal, Hell, and the Time of Final Judgment.
Section- 4 [Verse: 5–7]: Prayer
You do we worship, and Your aid we seek. Guide us to the Straight Path, the path of those on whom you have bestowed your grace, not of those who earned Your anger, nor of those who went astray.
In these huge affairs at astronomical level who else can help? So we pray to Allah to guide us to the Straight Path, the path of those on who grace have been bestowed.
1. I have not considered Arsh as a Universe, though it is bigger than Samawat and Jannaat. It does not hold the characteristics of a Universe. It is Head Quarters of Allah.
2. There may be doubt(s) in above explanation. It will be deliberately discussed in subsequent Surahs when it will be clear. The Quran does not contradict itself.
3. The diagrams in this Chapter are taken from “The Encyclopedia of Space Travel and Astronomy” edited by John Man. However, in the last diagram I have put Sakal, Hell, and the Time of Final Judgment.